However, currently, there is a fear that smallpox virus may be used as a biological weapon. The observation and the direct human trial of Edward Jennera doctor in Gloucestershire, England, paved the foundation stone for immunology. In spite of all these successes, smallpox inoculation was severely opposed.
In this manner, Jenner initiated the science of immunology. Then one woman was sent to a smallpox epidemic area and was ordered to lie every night in the same bed with a smallpox patient and she was also ordered to attend him.
The woman did not contract the smallpox disease. Currently, only two laboratories in the world are known to keep the smallpox virus, one in USA and the other in Russia. The immune response induced against cowpox viral antigens offer protection against smallpox.
When World Health organization was ready to certify the eradication of smallpox, an accident occurred in Birmingham, where a medical photographer died of smallpox, Smallpox viruses essay, from virus stocks kept in a laboratory.
Thus exposure to a mild disease i. People laughed at his idea and said that inoculation of cowpox material would make people to grow horns! The smallpox inoculation was claimed to be unsafe, and against God and Nature.
Afterwards the prince and princess of Wales had their two daughters undergo similar procedure. The notion that using humans in experimental trials may be unethical today, but such a notion was unheard in those days. From the skin lesions of the cow, the matter was collected and given as vaccine Vacca is Latin for cow.
The roots of modern immunology can be traced to the 18th century, when immunization techniques against smallpox were being tried. Within fifty years of the discovery, most European countries had initiated compulsory vaccination, without knowing that they were dealing with a virus!
This threat has made the United States of America to restart smallpox vaccination in military personnel and others working in sensitive areas. The Smallpox viruses essay case of naturally occurring smallpox was recorded in Somalia in October At first Jenner faced a lot of resistance to publish his work, and finally he published his work at his own expenses.
Smallpox disease was successfully eradicated from the world by smallpox vaccination, which was carried out throughout the world. Jenner conducted the experiment on 23 cases and he concluded that those who had suffered cowpox were indeed immune to smallpox.
The boy did not develop smallpox except for a small sore at the site of inoculation. Finally, in the World Health Assembly declared that smallpox has been eradicated throughout the world. An useful essay on smallpox! The cowpox vesicular pus, which gave greater resistance to smallpox, was propagated in cattle.
Later five orphans who had not yet had smallpox were inoculated and they all recovered. Skin incisions were made in three male and three female convicts and pus from the smallpox lesions of a sick individual was inserted. This dangerous procedure called variolation was acceptable at that time, but not today.
At that time Jenner or anyone did not know the nature of the infectious agents of cowpox and smallpox. However, his concept was contrary to the beliefs about diseases in the 16th century. After a brief illness, all individuals recovered fully. When the youngest child of the Prince of Wales fell ill, thought to be due to smallpoxthe physicians asked permission of the king to perform smallpox inoculation experiments in condemned criminals on the condition that the prisoners received pardon.
The college of physicians required that Jenner should pass an examination in classics, which Jenner refused. The concept that diseases are caused by infectious organisms was developed over many centuries before it was firmly established.
On 1st JulyJenner inoculated the same boy with matter from a smallpox patient. Lady Mary Worley Montague, the wife of the British Ambassador in Constantinople got her son inoculated with smallpox by the surgeon of the Embassy and she tried to popularize smallpox inoculation in England.1.
List three characteristics of the variola virus that causes smallpox. (3) The variola virus can spread fast and is said to be the largest virus containing the most complex DNA sequence.
Within hours it can be throughout the entire body.
This virus also starts in animals and is spread to the human population. The origin of the smallpox virus is unknown, but there is a speculation that it may have arisen from one of the other pox viruses or one of the wild or tamed animals in Asia or Africa.
From there, it spread to other countries and territories through warfare, conquest, and trading. Smallpox: Smallpox and Smallpox Vaccination Program Essay Smallpox is a contagious, serious, and sometimes fatal infectious disease derived from the variola virus, which emerged in human populations thousands of years ago.
Smallpox is an infectious (air-borne) and contagious disease that is caused by a virus occurring in two variants; variola minor and variola major (CDC, ). The exact date when smallpox appeared has not been formally documented. Smallpox is a dire, highly contagious, and often lethal disease that is caused by the variola virus that can be spread by air or by direct contact through people or clothing that has been contaminated by.
Smallpox essays "In a maximum-security facility in Atlanta, the world's most dangerous prisoner sits in solitary confinement, awaiting execution.
The world's most dangerous prisoner is the smallpox virus."1 What is smallpox? "Smallpox is a serious, contagious, and sometim.Download